The Office of Administrative Hearings (OAH) conducts hearings and resolves cases involving a wide variety of decisions and actions taken by different D.C. agencies and involving various D.C. laws. However, no matter the type of case you have, parts of the hearing process are generally the same.
The purpose of this page is to answer general questions about the OAH hearing process. This page does not give legal advice. You can only get legal advice from a lawyer.
Also, OAH tries to keep information on this page up to date, but laws and procedures sometimes change. You should always refer to agency notices, OAH orders, and official sources of laws and rules for the most current information and requirements regarding your case.
How do I request a hearing?
Most hearing requests need to be in writing and filed with OAH. Visit the Filings & Forms page for filing instructions and hearing request forms that can help you with the process.
If OAH does not have a standard hearing request form for your type of issue, you may use the General Hearing Request Form. However, it is ultimately your responsibility to know whether OAH has authority over the subject matter of your dispute. A court’s authority to hear and decide a case is called “jurisdiction.” If OAH does not have jurisdiction, your case will be dismissed. Visit the Rules & Laws page for more information about OAH jurisdiction.
OAH Rule 2808 has more information about beginning a case by requesting a hearing.
What are the OAH Rules and where can I find them?
The OAH Rules explain all the steps required to complete the OAH hearing process, from requesting a hearing to appealing a judge’s final decision. You can find the OAH Rules on the Rules & Laws page. You must follow the OAH Rules throughout the process.
Chapter 29 has special rules for specific case types. Chapter 28 broadly covers all case types at OAH. If your case type is not covered in Chapter 29, then Chapter 28 will have all the rules that apply to your case. Both Chapters have a table of contents with section headings that can help guide you to the information you need.
Where can I find laws and regulations that apply to my case?
Most cases at OAH involve D.C. laws, which you can find in the D.C. Code, and D.C. agency regulations, which you can find the D.C. Municipal Regulations (DCMR). If your case involves a notice you received from an agency or board, the notice should have a citation to the law or regulation the agency or board applied to make the determination given in the notice.
Legal citations often just give a section number. For example, a citation to a D.C. law could look like this: “D.C. Code § 51-110.” However, the first number before the hyphen is the title number, and the first digit after the hyphen indicates the chapter number. So, this citation example is for Title 51, Chapter 1, Section 51-110 of the D.C. Code. Citations to the DCMR are similar.
When navigating from a title down to a specific section in a code of laws or regulations, it can be helpful to look the headings at each level. The headings can guide you to the information you need.
The language of laws and regulations can be dense and technical, and understanding them can be complicated. But other resources may be available to help. You can click on the “I need more help” tab below for more information.
How do I prepare for a hearing?
After you file a hearing request, generally the next step of the process will be explained in a “scheduling order” that OAH will send you by mail, and by email if you provide an email address. In some cases, the judge may first schedule a “status hearing,” also called a “status conference” or a “preliminary hearing.” The purpose of a status hearing is for the judge to meet with the parties to generally talk about the issues in the case and the next steps of the process. Some cases may require more than one status hearing. The scheduling order will explain the purpose of a status hearing, but there often is not much preparation needed for this type of hearing.
If needed, the case will then be scheduled for an “evidentiary hearing.” The purpose of the evidentiary hearing is for each side to give “evidence” to support their side of the case. The scheduling order for an evidentiary hearing will have specific instructions, but hearing preparation generally involves each side collecting the information they want the judge to know and planning how to present the information during the hearing.
Information you present during a hearing is called “evidence.” There are two broad categories of evidence:
- Verbal testimony (what you and other witnesses say at the hearing)
- Documents, photographs, or other physical items
For testimony, you can practice telling your side of the story before the hearing. If you have witnesses that will testify on your behalf, you can ask your witnesses to practice their testimony as well. Practicing your testimony can help make sure you and your witnesses don’t accidentally leave out important information and can help you feel more comfortable on the day of the hearing.
If a witness won’t agree to come to a hearing voluntarily, you can ask the judge for a “subpoena.” A subpoena is a court order that requires someone to come to a hearing and testify. Visit the Subpoena Request page, under “Filings & Forms,” for more information about the subpoena process.
Documents, photographs, or other items you plan to use to support your case are called “exhibits.” You should collect all your exhibits before the hearing so that you can file a copy of each exhibit with OAH and “serve” a copy on the other party by the deadline given in the scheduling order. “Serving” means delivering, mailing, or faxing a copy of the exhibit to the other party. You can also serve exhibits by email if you and the other party have agreed in writing to allow service by email. You can find the contact information for the DHS at the end of the scheduling order, on the page called “Certificate of Service.”
If you know that the other party, or a person or organization related to the case, has important documents about the facts in the case, but they will not give you copies of the documents, you can ask the judge for a “subpoena” that will require them to do so. Besides requiring someone to testify at hearing, a subpoena can also be used to require someone to share documents. You can also ask the judge to allow “discovery.” Discovery is the formal process of getting information from an opposing party. Discovery generally is not needed or permitted in most OAH hearings, but it may be an option if you have a good reason. Visit the Subpoena Request and Discovery Request pages, under “Filings & Forms,” for more information about these processes.
Also, as you prepare exhibits, keep in mind that OAH is separate from the agency that made the decision you are appealing. That means that OAH does not automatically have copies of any other agency’s notices or other documents. To use those documents at the hearing, you still need to file copies with OAH.
As part of your hearing preparation, you should keep in mind that properly filing and serving an exhibit does not automatically mean that the judge can rely on the information in the exhibit when making a decision. Instead, you need to be prepared to introduce the exhibit during your testimony or a witness’s testimony. In other words, you or a witness will need to describe the item and may need to answer questions about it, so that the judge can be satisfied that the item is relevant to the case and is reliable. After you or a witness describe an exhibit and answer any questions from the judge or the other party, you can then ask the judge to admit the exhibit into evidence. If the judge allows the exhibit into evidence, you can then refer to the item in detail during your testimony, and the judge can rely on the item when making a decision. You need to be prepared for this process for each individual exhibit. It is a good idea to bring a list of all the exhibits you plan to use during the hearing, so you can keep track of what you have talked about and whether the judge has accepted the exhibit into evidence.
Lastly, you should have copies of all exhibits, both your own and the other party’s, when you come to your hearing. Even if your hearing is in person at OAH, OAH generally does not provide copies of the exhibits for the parties. Each party needs to bring their own copies.
Here are some of the common OAH Rules that apply to hearing preparation: Rule 2809 (Filing of Papers); Rule 2811 (How to Serve a Paper); Rule 2812 (Calculating Deadlines); Rule 2813 (Motions Procedure); Rule 2821 (Hearings and Evidence). Other rules may apply, so it is a good idea to familiarize yourself with the OAH Rules’ table of contents so that you know where to go to look for particular requirements. The OAH Rules are on the Rules & Laws page.
How do I send documents or other exhibits I want to use for my case?
All exhibits must be filed with OAH and served on the other party.
You can file exhibits with OAH in person; by mail, email, or fax; or through the OAH E-Filing Portal. Visit the Filings & Forms page for specific filing instructions.
“Serving” means delivering, mailing, or faxing copies of your exhibits to the other party. If the other party has agreed in writing, you may also send exhibits by email.
Each party must file and serve exhibits by the deadline given in the scheduling order to make sure both sides have opportunity to review all the documents and other items the other side intends to use to support their case.
If you do not know the contact information for the other party, look at the “Certificate of Service” at the end of the scheduling order you receive from OAH. The Certificate of Service lists the contact information for each party.
What can I expect at a hearing?
You should look closely at your scheduling order for information about how your hearing will be held, but most OAH hearings are currently remote and are scheduled to take place by telephone. OAH uses a program called Webex to hold remote hearings, but only a phone is required for anyone to join. Visit the Webex Hearings page for more information about joining a remote hearing by phone.
If you are scheduled for a telephone hearing, you can request a video hearing or an in-person hearing, using the Request for Video Conference or In-Person Hearing form. Or, if you are scheduled for an in-person hearing, you can request to join the hearing by phone, using the Request to Participate by Telephone form.
Whether remote or in person, an evidentiary hearing is generally divided into three main parts:
- Opening statements
- Presentations of evidence
- Closing arguments
An opening statement is your chance to give the judge a broad overview of your case and what you intend to prove through your evidence. The opening statement is not testimony and does not count as evidence, however. So, remember to present all of your evidence during the next part of the hearing, even if you talked about it already in your opening statement.
The presentation of evidence is the main part of the hearing. The judge will explain the how the hearing will go before it begins, but the side with the “burden of proof” normally goes first when giving evidence. The side with the burden of proof must prove certain facts to win the case. If the side with the burden of proof cannot do so, the other side wins.
When it is your turn to present evidence, you can give testimony and talk about the documents or other items you have as evidence, if the judge allowed your exhibits into evidence (see the “How do I prepare for hearing” tab above for more explanation about getting exhibits into evidence). You can also have your witnesses attend and ask them questions to get them to testify on your behalf. Asking questions of your own witnesses is called “direct examination.”
After you or a witness are done giving testimony, the other side can ask questions about the testimony that was given. This is called “cross examination.” Likewise, after the other side’s witnesses give testimony as part of their presentation of evidence, you will have the opportunity to ask them questions. However, neither side is required to ask cross examination questions, and the judge will not assume you agree with the testimony of the other side’s witnesses if you choose not to question them. The judge may also have questions for the parties and witnesses throughout the hearing.
Finally, after both sides have presented their evidence, each side can give a closing argument. A closing argument is not required but is your opportunity to summarize your evidence and legal arguments as to why you should win. The closing argument is not evidence, and you generally cannot introduce new exhibits during your closing or talk about information that was not admitted into evidence.
Throughout the process, keep in mind that all evidence and arguments are being given directly to the judge. An evidentiary hearing is not an opportunity for the parties to talk and argue between themselves. So, you should practice your opening statement, presentation of evidence, and closing argument as if you are speaking directly to the judge.
Finally, if you are ever confused as to what’s going on during the hearing, ask the judge to explain.
I do not speak English very well. Can I get an interpreter?
Yes. Upon request, OAH will provide a free court-certified interpreter at your hearing. You cannot have a friend or family member interpret for you during a hearing.
You may request an interpreter when you file your initial hearing request, or you may request an interpreter at any other time by calling OAH at (202) 442-9094 or by emailing [email protected]. But please let OAH know as soon as possible that you need an interpreter for your hearing to give OAH time to schedule an interpreter.
If you have not requested an interpreter by the day of your hearing, you should let the judge know that you need an interpreter, and the judge can try to get an interpreter. If the judge cannot find an interpreter right away, the judge will need to reschedule the hearing to give time for OAH to schedule an interpreter for a new hearing date.
will also provide an interpreter if you need to speak with an OAH Customer Service Representative or Resource Center staff, whether visiting in-person or calling OAH by phone. Simply ask for an interpreter and identify your language when you visit or call, and the OAH staff person will contact an interpreter to assist.
I have an impairment that makes it hard for me to attend a hearing. Can I get an accommodation?
Yes. Upon request, OAH will provide reasonable accommodations to allow you to participate in your hearing. You may request an accommodation when you file a hearing request, or you may request an accommodation at any other time by calling OAH at (202) 442-9094 or by emailing [email protected].
Please explain the accommodation you need, and OAH staff will be in touch with you to arrange reasonable accommodations for the day of your hearing. OAH may need some time to arrange the accommodations, so please let OAH know as soon as possible what accommodations you will need for your hearing.
What if I need to change my hearing date?
You may ask the judge in writing for a different hearing date, also called a “continuance.”
For this type of request, you must first reach out to the other party to see if they will agree to a different hearing date. The other party doesn’t have to agree, or even respond. But you at least need to make a good faith effort to get the other party’s consent.
You then must file your request with OAH and send a copy of the request to the other party. To make sure you give OAH all the information needed for this type of request, you may use the Request for a Different Hearing Date form.
You should never assume that a request is granted. If your hearing date is approaching and you have not received a written response, contact the OAH Clerk’s Office to see if the judge has acted on your request. If the judge has not acted on the request by your hearing date, then the hearing will be held as originally scheduled and you will be required to attend.
OAH Rule 2813 has more information about filing case-related requests, also called “motions.” The OAH Rules are on the Rules & Laws page.
What if I miss my hearing?
If you missed your hearing, and you still want a hearing, you must ask for a new hearing date in writing as soon as possible. Even if the judge sends a Final Order in the other party’s favor before you file your request, the judge can still grant a new hearing and change the final order. However, you must give a good reason for having missed the hearing. To make a request, you may complete the Request for a New Hearing form and file the form with OAH and serve a copy on the other party.
OAH Rule 2828 explains more about this type of request. OAH Rule 2813 has more information about filing case-related requests, also called “motions.” The OAH Rules are on the Rules & Laws page.
How does a judge make a final decision?
The judge will not make a final decision about your case during the hearing. Rather, the judge will take time after the hearing to carefully consider all the evidence before making a final decision in writing. The judge’s written decision is called a “final order.” The final order will be sent to all parties to the case and will explain the facts of the case as determined by the judge, the laws that apply to the case, and the judge’s legal conclusions based on how the law applies to the facts.
The final order will also explain your appeal rights, in case you disagree with the judge’s decision.
What can I do if I disagree with a judge’s final order?
If you disagree with a final order, you may either:
- ask the OAH judge to reconsider the decision or grant relief from the final order, or
- file an appeal with another court, depending on the case type.
Visit the Closed Case Forms page, under “Filings & Forms,” for more information and instructions.
I need more help.
Additional resources available may depend on your case type. For more information, you can contact the OAH Resource Center. Please call (202)-442-9094 and press “4” from the main menu, or send an email to [email protected]. The OAH Resource Center cannot give legal advice or be your lawyer, but our staff are happy to answer questions and give general information about your case.